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What flies Russia?

Most aircraft flying in Russia no more than analogues used abroad, 17.7% of the fleet - old cars, many of which have exhausted their resources and have problems with the items.
The collapse of the Airbus 321 October 30, 2015 became the largest catastrophe in the history of Russian aviation. The next day, after the fall of belonging "Kogalymavia» (Metrojet) Airbus 321, which killed 224 people, the Russian investigation instituted two criminal cases under "services that do not meet safety requirements" and "violation of the rules of safety and training for them" . The searches took place at the office of the carrier, Domodedovo, Samara airport where refueled board. State Duma deputies immediately issued a ban of aircraft older than 15 years (Airbus «Kogalymavia" was 18 years old) and the denial of a license shipping companies with a small number of aircraft. The head of the Duma Committee for International Affairs Alexei Pushkov said that air crashes leads to "market attitude" to the industry. Similar initiatives have advanced and MPs after the accident 23-year-old Boeing 737s in Kazan October 17, 2013. Then, as now, the public ignored the statements of airlines and industry experts argued that the plane was not a machine, and 20 years of service for him - not such a long time.
Both aircraft - Boeing and Airbus in Kazan over the Sinai - at last count, had intact. Kazan disaster as decided Commission of Inquiry has occurred because of the human factor, the Egyptian - three weeks later recognized as a terrorist act. Suspicions in disrepair flying aircraft in Russia, however, has not disappeared. RBC analyzed the fleet of Russian companies operating regular and charter passenger services, and find out how reasonable suspicion of wear.
We believe
For a basis was the list of valid certificates of airworthiness Rosaviation October 22, 2015 (ie, aircraft are allowed to fly in Russia), the data of the official websites of carriers and Internet resources, and We excluded from the full list of small aircraft (private jets), the planes of local airlines (practical range of less than 1000 km, mainly Antonov-2), helicopters, business jets, as well as all aircraft are not used for the transport of passengers - for example, freight and livestock. The sample did not get and aircraft are not used to carry passengers for commercial purposes, for example, the Air Force fleet, emergency and special squad for the transport of the first persons (SLO "Russia"), as well as aircraft owned aircraft plant. These contact lists with detailed information about each board were sent to all airlines, aircraft operators to confirm the correctness of the data we collected. All responses were taken into account in the analysis results.
In our statistics and planes were the second largest Russian airline "Transaero". The decision on its bankruptcy was made on October 1 and on October 26 the company lost its air operator certificate and ceased operations. Park "Transaero" in the process of return of lessors: a few dozen machines can get "Aeroflot", which went to a part of the routes, the rest will be sold on the market or written off. Given the sample in the park "Transaero" (Open of October, is 122 aircraft), we were guided by the fact that most of it can go to other Russian operators, as part of the park reflects the economic model of Russia's largest private carrier.
Which model is chosen
The most popular in the Russian family - medium-range Airbus 320 (A320, A319 and A321) in the country are allowed to fly 249 such aircraft. In second place with 203 sides family medium-range Boeing 737 flights which have recently requested to suspend the Interstate Aviation Committee (IAC).
Long-haul aircraft, according to our data, in Russia only 130 units, of which 76.6% - models of the Boeing 747, 767 and 777.
Definitions of medium-haul aircraft in the Russian legislation does not. In the world of this category usually referred machines with a range of more than 2.5 thousand. Km. Haul in Russia believe the car has a range of more than 8 thousand. Km.
The leader among the aircraft flying on medium-haul routes, Airbus has become in Russia not so long ago. Company's "big four" - "Aeroflot», S7, UTair, «Transaero" - in 2013. shared in half in their preferences, explains the researcher of the Institute of Transport Economics and Transport Policy of the Higher School of Economics Andrey Kramarenko. The first two have chosen Airbus, the second - Boeing. Now, "Transaero" stopped flying, and UTair significantly reduced park.
Two rival aircraft manufacturer provide most of the fleets of the world. According to the international organization Centre for Aviation (CAPA, Australia) in April 2013, all of the world's operating vessels 39.7% - a Boeing aircraft, and 28,7% - Airbus. Russia is no exception. Aircraft of the two companies hold 61.7% of the Russian fleet, 14.3% - other foreign aircraft (Embraer, Bombardier, De Havilland Canada, Let, ATR).
On the planes of domestic production accounts for only 24% of the total fleet of Russian carriers. And in the modern samples - AN-148, Tu-204, Tu-214 and Sukhoi Superjet - only 6.3%. The remaining 17.7% - the old modification "AN", "Tu" and "Yak", most of whom flew in the USSR. "But in the volume of passenger traffic share of these vehicles less than 5%" - adds Professor Moscow State Technical University of Civil Aviation Alexander Friedland.
According to the number patterns among modern Russian leader Sukhoi Superjet: these boards from domestic airlines 39. "The Sukhoi Superjet is a niche, but it is very narrow because of its size (capacity - up to 100 seats. - RBC)," - says Friedland. According to him, for local and regional routes, he is great, but on the main passenger flow with good yields economical machines for 150-200 seats. "His niche - backbone, but weak on the flow direction," - said the source.
From Soviet aircraft most in the airline's fleet of AN-24-67 engines. Turboprop passenger plane for lines of low and medium range has been developed Design Bureau (KB) Antonova at the end of the 1950s. Maximum capacity - up to 52 passengers. Operated mainly Russian regional companies (RBC believes such is not engaged on long-haul flights, flying through the capital's air hub and not based in Moscow and St. Petersburg). "AN-24 - the only aircraft in the world in its class, which sits on the ground, on packed snow or ice - like Honored Pilot of the USSR, President of air transport infrastructure Oleg Smirnov. - He flew across the airspace of the USSR and in the current conditions in the Far North is practically irreplaceable. "
Now AN-24 continue to be based in the north of the company: "Polar Airlines", "Yakutia", "Chukotavia." While replacing it massively on foreign models is impossible. First, foreign brands in the aircraft that could land on the ground in these regions, put fewer passengers, says Kramarenko. In addition, the technical documentation to them - in English, not all of which is owned by the pilots and staff of An-24. However, "Yakutia" during 2012-2013, took a lease of five Bombardier Dash 8 aircraft with a capacity of 70 to 80 seats. In the "daughter" of "Aeroflot" Far Eastern Airlines "Aurora" in addition to flying the Canadian Bombardier De Havilland Canada 6 Twin Otter. Most likely, in the coming years, the An-24 will be replaced by foreign vehicles, "as worn out and become extremely difficult and costly to maintain their airworthiness" predicts partner consulting company Concuros, former vice-president of "Sukhoi Civil Aircraft" Dmitry Mirgorodsky. Substitutions their domestic counterparts do not.
The second most popular among Soviet machinery - the Yak-42: Russian airlines in the park 33 such aircraft. However, several of them are deposited: waiting for any replacement of parts, some in the air is no longer rise. Machinery park entrance "Gazpromavia", "Grozny Avia", "Izhavia", "Saratov airlines". Last two years ago the company began to fly and the Brazilian Embraer 190.
How old aircraft in Russia
The survey showed that the average age of the Russian foreign models smaller than their share, our aircraft - often more. According to Andrei Sharypova, chief of the Civil Aviation Authority certification of ships Research Institute of Civil Aviation, for foreign cars it is about 40-60 thousand. Hours, ie 30 years. For Soviet it was smaller - of the order of 20 years. The manufacturer can extend life for each individual vessel.
For example, the average age generation Boeing 737 Classic (modification 300, 400, 500) in Russia - 20.2 years. Generation Boeing 737 Next Generation (modification of 600, 700, 800, 900) - 9.1 years. Modifications Airbus 320-7,5 year, A319-11,9 year. These figures are slightly different from the average. At Dutch airline KLM, according, Boeing New Generation on average fly at the age of 9.3 years. The American loukostera Southwest Airlines, according to USA Today, and the portal, at the age of 9.7 years. Machines the Boeing 737 Classic (modification of 300, 400 and 500) of the airline on the average more than 22 years.
As for Airbus, the A320 fleet of the German Germanwings 23 years old. In the US Delta, flying with "Aeroflot" in the alliance Skyteam, - 20,7 years. A319 aircraft from Delta - 13,8 years.
Most age model aircraft flying in Russia - the AN-24. On average, 42.1 years them. The average age of the other Soviet, still in operation Yak-42-24,7 years.
The Soviet and modern Russian aircraft (except Sukhoi Superjet) unlike overseas there is a problem with the items. Mass production of such machines is stopped, so you have to order components individually, which is several times more expensive, says Sergei Kovalyov, deputy head of monitoring and verifying the authenticity of the Research Institute of Civil Aviation. As a result, the Soviet machine sometimes give details with forged documents. According Koval, the market now to 8% of illegal parts, and from 2001 to 2015 due to problems with the items happened 50 serious incidents (incidents accounted for airplanes and helicopters).
Age of the aircraft, according to experts, is not reflected in its technical condition and airworthiness. "I as the commander of the ship did not ask, you give me the old plane or I'm going to fly on the new - it absolutely does not interest me" - says Smirnov. The main thing is you took time during the life of the aircraft maintenance and repair. Furthermore, its resources, and each item has a plane. By that time, Smirnov said, "how the aircraft is 17 years, these parts can be replaced several times."
The study showed that 58.7% of the Russian aircraft fleet was just one or two operator. And more than ten replacing each other carriers - in baggage only 3% of boards. Moreover, in many cases two same company was used aircraft turns. For example, there was the plane of airline "Izhavia" Yak-42: according to, given the alternating of the same carrier for 28 and a half years, he was replaced by 20 operators. According to Smirnov, professionals wary of aircraft flying above "in countries with high humidity, such as in Africa." However, such a machine, and the lessor and the owner is obliged to put in order. In this respect, for the technical condition of the aircraft lessor it is important, not the previous operator, he said.
As a rule, aircraft carriers refuse for economic reasons and not because of the end of his life, according to a study of the leasing company Avalon (offices in the US, Ireland, Dubai, Singapore and China). In Russia, foreign and domestic new model aircraft are no longer operated in the 20-23 years, says Kramarenko. Global indicators, according to a study Avalon, are similar.
Age preference flights
Russian airline fleet with the oldest times used as Soviet planes. Among carriers with ten or more sides is the park age - 41.2 years - the company "Turuhan", part of a group of UTair. Basically it performs customized flights, including mining companies. But "Turuhana" there are regular transport, so its planes were included in our study.
A total of 16 Russian companies operating for regular and charter planes over 25 years old.
The youngest of the park - the "Victory", started recently working "daughter" of "Aeroflot". Its sides all year. The "Aeroflot" the average age of the fleet, estimated RBC - 4.6 years. Aircraft stop flights of "Transaero" the average was 18.6 years (Fleet S7-9,2 year and UTair - 14 years). In 2005-2008, many Russian airlines, including carriers 'big four', when fuel prices have gone up massively upgraded the park, preferring to aircraft with less fuel consumption. In particular, and this explains the relatively young fleet of foreign aircraft in Russia, says Friedland.
On April 1, 2001 entered into force on standards of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), to set the reduced noise levels of aircraft engines, flying in Europe. Under the new standards do not fall, almost all Soviet and Russian aircraft of that time: the Tu-134, Tu-154, Tu-154, Il-62, Il-86. Thus, airlines, active summer in Europe and the transit of European countries were forced to change the old noisy machines to the new import.
Substantial plug between the average age of aircraft of different companies have and abroad. According to the rating agency Bloomberg, the compiled in January 2013, the American Delta median age - 15.8 years, Southwest Airlines - 14,7, Aeromexico - 15,2, Lufthansa - 12,4, Air France - 11,5, Ryanair - five years.
Each company chooses that it is economically more efficient: new age or plane stresses Mirgorodsky. For example, the purchase of a new Boeing 737-800 will cost about $ 48-55 million. The same ten-year model is going to cost $ 16-18 million, said the head of the leasing company Gold'nsky Leasing Alexander Kochetkov. But the old aircraft and require maintenance costs. Not all companies can afford to pay such amount at a time - you have to take a car lease. In Russia, according to the company "Ilyushin Finance." Leased at least 80% of aircraft operated.
It does so, and the largest player in the market - "Aeroflot", which met in 2025 to enter the top 20 global carriers by revenue and passenger traffic. For this purpose the airline for several years not only increases but also refreshes its fleet, has repeatedly said in interviews CEO Vitaly Savelyev. "In the old plane is difficult to compete in the global market", - explains the strategy Mirgorodsky. Older models of "Aeroflot" and gives their "daughters" - airlines "Aurora", "Orenburg airlines", "Donavia", "Russia".
But many companies even in the leasing of new aircraft not enough money. "Transaero", for example, dreamed oust a rival state, because of the expensive debt financing as itself recognized in its financial statements, increased its fleet of cheap foreign and not a new machine, writing "Vedomosti". After the devaluation of the ruble at the end of last year lease for the Russian companies have significantly risen in price even on older aircraft (leasing payments are made in foreign currency. - RBC) adds Mirgorodsky. According Kochetkova, leasing a new Boeing 737-800 in a year costs an average of $ 4.2 million, ten-year - at about $ 2 million.
Public and private airlines
48 carriers whose fleet explored RBC, split almost evenly on both public and private. The controlling stake in the various federal and local authorities are in 21 companies. In three - ALROSA, "Cosmos" (part of Rocket and Space Corporation "Energia"), "East" - the state is involved. 24 Russian airlines are privately owned. The study showed that there are no significant differences in age and configuration of private and public fleets, despite the claims of the State Duma deputies. From state-owned companies have the youngest fleet of the "Aeroflot" (Airlines "Aurora", "Victory", "Orenburg airlines", "Donavia" and "Russia" carrier consolidates in its accounts). The youngest - the new loukostera "Victory". Their planes a year ago, came to the park directly from the manufacturer. Fleet "Russia", according to RBC, 11.5 years (according to the "Aeroflot" - 13.3 years), "Donavia" - 11.6 years (11 years), "Aurora" - 13.5 years (12 years old ), "Orenburg airlines" - 11 years (10 years). "Aeroflot" has refused to confirm details of each RBC plane. "The data of your tables, we will not confirm or deny, - said the representative of the carrier Fetisov Maxim. - Who is in the process of creating a single airline on the basis of "Russia." There will be changes in the park of the airline associations. Also, "Aeroflot" carries remarketing of the aircraft. " While "Donavia" and "Russia" flying mainly on Airbus, in the park "Aurora" is a modification of the old planes Boeing 737-200, one of them for 30 years. Fleet "Orenburg airlines" like "Victory" consists only of Boeing.
From gosperevozchikov younger fleet only airlines owned by State Unitary Enterprise "International airport" Orenburg "in 2013-2014 to purchase aircraft Let 410 Turbolet, and regional carrier of the Republic of Komi" Komiaviatrans "(Park of 6.8 years).
Among the private companies have the youngest fleet of Red Wings - 7,9 years. Its fleet of Russian-made new modifications "Tu" and the Sukhoi Superjet-100.
Most parks and age in the private and public sectors have a local and regional companies. Among private - this summer in Siberia "Turuhan" and based in Ulan-Ude "Buryat airlines". The latter company claimed that in October, will begin to operate 15 aircraft Sukhoi Superjet-100, but the data is not reflected in the public domain, on the request of its fleet the company has not responded. In the public sector - a regional "Pskov-Air", Vologda Aviation Enterprise and "Polar Airlines", owned by the Republic of Sakha. Fleet of these companies from 35 to 45 years. Their planes - it is mainly short-haul An-24 and An-26.
If you take the average indicators, the fleet of private companies, even a little younger - he was 19.2 years. Of the 24 private sector companies have a fleet of 16 under the age of 20 years. The average age of public companies with state participation and carriers - 20.7 years. And of the 24 companies in 12 park under 20 years. Place of registration
Most of the passenger fleet in Russia is in a foreign jurisdiction, the study shows RBC. According to our calculations, the boards of the 987 Russian Airlines with scheduled and charter flights with a capacity of more than a dozen seats, 508 are registered in Bermuda, 109 - in Ireland, an aircraft - in France. For example, all the aircraft "Aeroflot" (except the Sukhoi Superjet), S7 and UTair registered in Bermuda. All three companies declined to comment. The registration of 60 aircraft RBC could not be determined.
"The country, which is registered in the register of the aircraft, in essence, assumes the obligation to oversee its airworthiness, - says head of analytical services agency" airport "Oleg Panteleyev. - Representatives of the aviation authorities carry out regular checks of the register, control the maintenance of the aircraft. "
Russia has registered 311 aircraft, mainly Russian and Ukrainian production. But this there are exceptions: for example, "KrasAvia" from Krasnoyarsk in Russia registered the Czech 410 Let L-Turbolet. As explained company spokesman Vladislav Vlasov, the decision of the owner - State transport leasing company, which is 100% owned by the Ministry of Transport.
Foreign registration in most cases - the decision of owners of private leasing companies, both foreign and Russian. The fact that "VTB Leasing" also prefers to register planes outside Russia, RBC said the source on the market. In the "VTB Leasing" declined to comment.
The main reason for this choice - distrust of the international market to the Russian standards of service, said the director of the legal department "Sberbank Leasing" Cyril Alpatov. "By Western standards the compass in an aircraft may change only aircraft technician who works with avionics and aircraft technician did not, which changes the wheels and brakes, - says Alexander Kochetkov. - In Russia, not so. A technician can change the wheel, the light bulb in the cabin, something in the air conditioning system and everything, and behind him is the person who signs the work performed. By Western standards, this is unacceptable. Imagine that you have appendicitis should operate dentist - a Russian scheme of performance of the service. "
As a result, he said, all the Boeing 737, which had been in the Russian register at least a year, loses up to 30% of market value. The general director of the leasing company "Ilyushin Finance." Alexander Rubtsov milder assessments: according to his calculations, the aircraft had been in the Russian Register of 5-10 years, loses its value up to 10-15%.
There is another reason: if the aircraft is registered in Ireland, Bermuda or Aruba, the lessor is exempt from property tax, vehicle tax and other fees. Property tax in Russia is 2.2%, in Ireland, Bermuda and Aruba do not.
By registering their aircraft abroad, Russian airlines in the past 2.5 years underpaid to the budget of about 145 billion rubles., Calculated at the end of last year, the auditors of the Accounting Chamber. "The approach leads to not matriculating in the federal budget a number of payments, such as VAT on leasing payments, property tax, tax on the income of the lessor because it is registered in a foreign country", - he said then the auditor Sergei Shtogrin.
Foreign jurisdictions - is the protection for the lessor in the event of bankruptcy of airlines, adds Panteleyev: Russia does not participate fully in the Cape Town Convention, which protects the rights of property owners, and we do not have registration and de-registration of vessels. Therefore, in the Russian register lessors would be a risk that in case of bankruptcy of the client to quickly return the aircraft does not work, and they are stuck for a long time, for example, in the area of ??customs clearance Domodedovo, he explained. Panteleyev not know about other countries where the same mass, as in Russia, recorded a court in a foreign jurisdiction: planes that fly, for example, in the United States or France, registered in the same place.
Despite the problems with service and parts for the Russian aircraft, all the experts with whom talked to RBC this writing, the domestic passenger fleet is considered reliable. According to the report of IAC (which includes the 11 states of the former USSR), in 2014 82% of all incidents connected with the human factor, 16% - with technical defects and 2% - from adverse external influences.

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